The Evolution of the Intraocular Lens Implant/The Goal to Prayer & How We Get There Part 2
As cataract surgery and the removal of the cataract improved, there was still no viable option until after the first half of the 20th century with ...the exception of extremely strong and heavy glasses to correct vision. The problem was finding a way insert an intraocular lens (i.e. a lens implant inside the eye) that would not cause the patient’s immune system to have an inflammatory reaction and reject the implant.
The first intraocular lens, or IOL, that caused no inflammatory reaction was performed in 1795. Casaamata, the court oculist in Dresden, used glass for the first intraocular lens implant, but there was a problem.1 The implant dislocated and fell back into the eye due to its weight.2 To solve this, a lighter, inert implant needed to be invented to bring natural vision to fruition.
The discovery of the material to be used for IOL occurred during World War II. An on-duty British Ophthalmologist, Sir Harold Ridley observed an interesting fact about the pilots he treated with certain eye injuries. Pilots who had small pieces of the planes cupolas imbedded in their eyes showed no inflammatory reaction to it. The material used in the cupolas was made from PMMA. Using this information, he then created the first successful artificial lens from this material.3
He implanted the first IOL, the Transpex I, into a 45 year old female patient on November 27, 1947 in London.4 By 1959, Dr. Ridley had performed cataract surgery on 750 patients using the PMMA lens,5 although the medical community remained highly distrustful of his surgical procedure with IOL implantation for many years. One of the disadvantages of his procedure was that it required a large incision wound, due to the rigidity of the lens implant, which would induce astigmatism.6 Not until the 1970’s did the medical establishment accept and consider it standard operating procedure.7
A flexible and foldable IOL was being designed to solve the problem of a large incision wound. On October 31, 1989, a suitable material made of polydimethylsiloxane made the IOL flexible for mass market.8 Newer materials have since been invented that are more flexible and foldable to allow an even smaller incision of around 2mm. With smaller incisions wounds, vision improved, with shorter recovery time and less risk of infections and complications. With these advancements, cataract surgery became one of the safest, successful and commonplace surgeries being performed in the industrial world today.
1. Ocular Implants. 2013. museyeum/ online_exhibitions/ artificialeyes/ implants.cfm 2.&3. Scholtz, S. An Ophthalmic Success Story: The History of IOL Materials. Cataract & Refractive Surgery Today Europe. September 2006. 4. Werner L, et al. Dense opacification of the optical component of a hydrophilic intraocular lens. J Cat Refract Surg. 2001;27(9):1485-1492. 5. Tehrani M, et al. Late postoperative opacification of Memory Lens hydrophilic actylic intraocular lens. J Cat Refract Surg. 2004;30(1):112-115. 6.-8. Scholtz, S. An Ophthalmic Success Story: The History of IOL Materials. Cat & Refract Surg Today Europe. September 2006. ************************************************************** The Goal to Prayer and How We Get There Part 2
“When once the Master of the house has risen up and shut the door and you begin to stand outside and knock at the door saying, ‘Lord, Lord open for us,’ and He will answer and say to you, ‘I do not know you, where you are from.’ “Then you will begin to say, ‘We ate and drank in Your presence and You taught in our streets.’ “But He will say, ‘I tell you I do not know you, where you are from. Depart from Me, all you workers of iniquity.’ Luke 13:25-27
One of the goals for prayer is to build a relationship with Jesus and with the Father. So how do we improve our prayer life? The U.S. Catholic Catechism for adults says there are three essential elements we can utilize to improve our quality of prayer: time, attention and effort.
Time: Make it a priority to pray so that our relationship with Jesus and God deepens. Make it a habit to have prayer as a daily routine in your life without rushing through it. Take, for example getting a tan. You can’t get a tan if you are out in the sun for less than a minute, it takes time to affect the melanin in your skin just as it does with prayer. If we barely communicate with our friends, family members or spouse, that relationship will not grow or survive. So why would it be any different with our relationship with God?
Attentiveness: Give full attention to your prayers. I know for myself, it is quite annoying when I am talking with someone and they only give me partial attention. Why would it not offend God if we pray in such a manner? Yes, there are times in our life, a crisis or problem that may affect our attentiveness, but talk to God about the elephant in the room then!
Effort: A good prayer life is not easy; it takes effort on our part. Many relationships breakup because one or both parties do not want to put the effort into the relationship. It does take effort, yes, but the d goal is so worthwhile, to currently have a friendship with Jesus. When we die, I would not want Jesus to say, “I do not know you.” Instead, I want Him to know us intimately and by name, welcoming all of us into our Father’s house.
Synopsis & based on a talk by Fr. Riccardo titled: What We Have Here is a Failure to ommunicate: Prayer-Quality Time with Your Father